Hitler’s Attack U-Boats: The Kreigsmarine’s WW II Submarine Strike Force

Reviewed by Charles C. Kolb, Ph.D. During World War II,  Hamburg, Germany’s second  largest city – an industrial center with oil refineries, extensive shipyards, and U-boat pens — endured  115 British  Royal Air Force strategic bombing raids (1939-1945), one of which in July 1943, code named  Operation Gomorrah, created a huge firestorm  killing an estimated