CHOW: Creamed Sliced Beef on Toast (S.O.S.)

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CHOW is a new blog and video series exploring the history behind U.S. Navy culinary traditions.

By Matthew T. Eng

Let’s face it: if you’ve served in the Navy during the twentieth century, chances are you’ve eaten sh*t. “Sh*t on a Shingle,” or creamed chipped beef on toast (S.O.S.), that is. The term derives from any brown creamed substance (sh*t) on top of toast (shingle).

The exact origin of S.O.S. is fuzzy. According to Wentworth and Flexner’s 1967 Dictionary of American Slang, no specific origin is known. The dish, which consists of sliced dried beef mixed in a thick creamy gravy, appeared in military cookbooks at the start of of the twentieth century. Some cooking sources, such as the online website “Seabee Cook,” claim the dish came from the Army. Steve Karoly, who authored an article on the subject, claims the “Army favorite” has become “the most popular version of SOS.” Some Navy veterans may disagree.

One of the original versions of chipped beef from the 1910 Manual for Army Cooks used beef stock, evaporated milk, and parsley added to flour, butter, and dried beef. According to Karoly, a creamier recipe using salty chipped beef was adopted during the Second World War. This style is clearly evident with Navy cookbooks as well. The 1944 Cook Book of the United States Navy recipe for “Creamed Sliced Dried Beef” includes a hefty amount of dried beef (7 lbs.) added to a paste-like roux and boiled milk.

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Variations of the recipe exist. Navy cookbooks also used a similar recipe for minced beef on toast, which had a tomato-based sauce with ground beef and sautéed onions. Some recipes for minced beef used a can of tomato juice for the sauce. E. Jon Spear’s 1960s memoir Navy Days stated that most sailors on his ship referred to the dish with the dysphemism “Red S.O.S.”

The popularity of creamed chipped/sliced beef soon extended beyond the military. Like the explosion of popularity in pizza after WWII, sailors and servicemen craved the warm and filling dish when their time in the military ended. Home recipes of creamed chipped beef published in the later twentieth century included S.O.S. variations using other meats such as tuna and sausage in a white sauce. Stouffer’s still makes a “classic” creamed chipped beef frozen meal to this day.

And then there were the nicknames. Food is a social experience, so it makes sense that camaraderie would come from finding common ground in the like or dislike of certain meals. When looking through the memoirs, diaries, and personal reminisces of sailors, it is clear that creamed sliced beef has the title for having the most nicknames, ranging from humorous to unsavory. Some of the nicknames simply play on the S.O.S. alliteration and assonance: Stew on a Shingle,” “Same Old Stuff,” and “Save Our Stomachs.” Others, like “foreskins on toast,” emit feelings of anything but hunger. Robert A. Maher and James E. Wise’s memoir Sailors’ Journey Into War said it well (warning: language):

“Another food that was enjoyed by both the army and navy was chipped beef on toast. There has been, and still is, a constant battle about what it was called. My army friends say SOS or shit on a shingle. My navy friends and I say FSOT, which I won’t translate.”

The terms grew in popularity in chow halls and mess decks around the Navy and soon became part of the legend of the dish itself.

Whatever you called it, creamed chipped beef was a staple for many sailors throughout the twentieth century. Love it or not, most sailors had to at least tolerate its taste. As former sailor Michael Gring commented in a 2015 interview of Navy chow in general, “you ate well, whether you liked it or not.” Gring had a recent experience with S.O.S. that brings back memories of the “weird comfort food” of his past life:

“About three or four years ago, I had S.O.S. I hadn’t had it since I retired eleven years ago. I ate a little of it – that was it. It didn’t taste that good, or at least the same. I thought it tasted better when I was in the Navy. I remember it being warm and filling you up, even if they often had to improve on the standard recipe.”

No standard recipe for S.O.S. exists, unless you consider the recipe for “Chipped Beef on Toast” (Recipe No. L 052 00) included in the Armed Forces Recipe Service, or AFRS, in 1969. So the question then is, what does it really taste like?

I had to know. Not only did I want to taste it, I wanted to cook it exactly to the specifications that the Navy had in mind. And since I work for an organization specializing in naval history, I figured I better use a historic recipe.


I decided to go with the recipe for creamed sliced beef on toast found in the 1944 Cook Book of the United States Navy (shown above). Unfortunately, that specific recipe presented a LARGE problem: quantity. Like most Navy or Armed Forces cook books, the 1944 edition included recipes catered to large groups. The S.O.S. recipe was designed to feed 100 at a time. I didn’t plan to purchase seven pounds of dried beef for this specific experiment, so I had to scale down.

Thankfully, our STEM-H program came to the rescue. Several years ago, teacher Greg Felber of Ledyard Middle School in Ledyard, CT created a mathematics lesson plan titled “Cook For a Submarine Fleet.” The lesson plan helped students learn fractional proportions to find the right amount of ingredients needed to feed everything from an entire submarine crew to an individual family. The program was so successful it was tested in a 7th grade classroom. After a re-introduction to dimensional analysis with our STEM-H coordinator John Paulson, I was ready to do some math for the sake of history:


I had originally designed the recipe for 10 people, which was 1/10 the amount needed for the 1944 recipe. I decided to half that, making the full recipe I used as:

5 oz. dried beef (1 package)
4 cups milk
1/3 stick butter (fat)
½ cup flour
¼ tsp. pepper
5 slices of bread, toasted


Using a nonstick skillet, I proceeded to follow the directions based of the 1944 recipe. I first sliced the package of dried beef and set it aside for later. Next, I melted the butter on medium heat and added the flour to make a roux for the milk. In reality, the mixture (which was supposed to resemble a “thick paste”) came out more like a paste because of the high proportion of flour to butter. More butter would certainly lend a smoother consistency. The milk was then added and boiled, stirring constantly to thicken.

When the white sauce was thick and gravy-like, the dried sliced beef and pepper was added. The temperature was lowered to medium low,  and the mixture was simmered for 10 minutes. Last, the mixture was finally spooned on top of white toast.

Bon appetit, Navy style.

The Taste Test

I smelled it before I took a bite. Somehow, it smelled salty. The dried beef poked through the white gravy in shallow peaks. The consistency was thick and rich. I could see why sailors wouldn’t mind something like S.O.S. on a cold morning at sea. I took my first bite. It tasted as salty as it smelled. In fact, it reminded me of a much saltier version of biscuits and gravy. It is certainly not for everyday consumption. The toast was a welcome addition to the meal to help cut the taste a little (but only a little). My wife, who also was on hand to taste test, referred to it as “Bisquick with salt.”

The full video and recipe is shown below.

If you have your own personal stories about S.O.S., please include your story in the comment section below or email Matthew T. Eng at We would love to include it in the ongoing narrative of the social history of the United States Navy.

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  1. Robert Shobe


    I always rinse the chipped beef before chopping into pieces. Helps to cut down the salt content.

  2. James C Thomas


    One morning in the CPO mess aboard a destroyer, one of the Chiefs told the mess cook to bring him a bowl of SOS. The mess cook got as far as the door, turned, and with a puzzled look on his face, asked the Chief if he wanted “steel wool pads?”. We all got a big laugh out of that one! That happened in 1967.

  3. Reply

    I am a former Army Combat Medical Specialist and the author is correct…we called it shit on a shingle. They served it as an an ala carte item in the mess hall…i was starioned at Fort Polk in Louisiana, so i am guessing that it is a southern thing. I used to dmother my omlete with a few scoops of it…yum…now I am hungry!!! Great article!!!

    • Reply

      I grew up in Philly and it was a staple there. Our chipped beef came from a Pennsylvania Dutch company from Quakertown Pa so it was definitely not a southern thing.

  4. Pingback: Sailor Grub - CHOW: Creamed Sliced Beef on Toast (S.O.S.) - Old Salt BlogOld Salt Blog

  5. Lesley Nurczyk


    My dad called it S.O.S. and he served in the Navy during WWI and Korea. My mom always made it with Buddig Chipped Beef and green peas. I think she used canned peas, because that’s what we ate at the time.

    My dad liked it, but after I got married I wasn’t able to bring myself to make it, much less eat it. The other day I thought that it would taste good. Guess it’s been long enough. :-)

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  7. Gene Treants


    Having Served in the Navy from 1966 to 1996, I have eaten SOS and its variations from boot camp in Great Lakes to all of my shore stations to ships. Authentic Creamed Chipped Beef is simple to make, yet so many people mess it up by NOT making the roux first. IMHO that is the key step in preparing this dish. I also soak the dried beef to remove some of the excess salt at least 30 to 60 minutes and then rinse well.

    Perhaps the simplest variation, if you can get its key ingredient is Creamed Venison on toast or biscuit. Brown Ground Bambi with some onion then add cream of mushroom soup. Serve over toast or biscuits.

  8. Robert Erickson


    The history presented above certainly makes sense. By the late 19th Century, canned meats had become reliable and had a good shelf life. Canned evaporated milk had recently been invented. Given that raw milk has a short shelf life and the only ways of preservation had been making butter or cheese, evaporating and canning allowed almost 18 months of safe storage. Therefore the combination of dried beef, canned milk with flour and bread made perfect sense before the improved refrigeration and freezing devices of the later 20th Century. In the south, biscuits with sausage gravy has been a long time staple of rural families for the same reasons

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  10. Bill Antonowicz


    Great article, and I’ve used an old Army recipe I found as a basis for my version. Did 6 yrs in the Navy and 20 in the USCG, and remember complaining about SOS, but really actually liking it. The copy I found is “Recipe No. 251” from the 1910 Manual for Army Cooks which I converted as follows-
    For 2 people, I use 2 oz. of Buddig beef, 2C milk, 2 TB butter, 1/4 C flour, salt & pepper & 4 slices of bread. The recipe states-
    1. Melt butter in pan, add dried beef and brown for 2-3 min.
    2. Add salt/pepper to taste & milk, saving 1/4 cup for later. Bring to boil.
    3. Mix flour & 1/4 C milk together, and add to mixture slowly until it thickens.
    4. Serve over 2 slices toast for each.
    My wife likes this one, and my taste tells me its pretty close to what I had on the USS Laffey in the Navy. BTW, the 2 oz. pkg. of Buddig beef is only 68 cents in Walmart, a gift to us vets for a cheap meal bringing back salty memories.

  11. E. Bradley


    The recipe doesn’t even resemble it’s namesake, SOS. I served in the 50’s and for the sake of not being too insensitive I wasn’t going to say what we called it. (My wife doesn’t like the term.) Since it was already mentioned in the article I will give it a try. “Foreskins on a Raft”. It is a basic white sauce with chipped beef. I like that and my wife prepares it fairly often. I like what we called SOS better, but had a hard time finding a recipe. It is sometimes listed as “minced beef”, and it resembles it’s name sake. I have made it several times and it comes out pretty good, but not as good as the Navy cooks.

    I know that other services have called the other SOS and even the more recent Navy. Whether it is SOS or FSOAR, it is all good and brings back memories.

    I got into this web site trying to refresh my memory on the recipe. I am making some SOS in the morning.

    • Admin


      E. Bradley,

      As stated in the article, the recipe is taken straight from a Navy recipe, even if there are many variations.

      Matthew T. Eng

  12. Rob Allen


    Great article and great comments. I do not remember SOS at the Great Lakes but did eat it while aboard the USS Independence, CVA-62. I seem to remember it being a creamish-light brown color. I will have to try it with the addition of a little mace or nutmeg. I remember that we did have rolled up egg and cheese style omlets just about every morning. We even had steaks every now and then as well while overseas. We did have some really good food on the Indy!!

  13. Reply

    My mother made this often when I was young. She was a single mother with four young boys to feed. I never cared for it then,not being sweet like frosted flakes or fruit loops were. But from Paris Island,to Marine Corps chow halls,to the USS Mount Whitney,it became my favorite breakfast.I week it on menus whenever I am eating at a diner that I’ve never been to before and my opinion of the place weighs upon SOS being on that menu. I still eat it for breakfast every chance I get. The taste and smell remind me of my time in the Marines.

  14. Jim Henderson


    I take issue with this article. SOS “sh.t on a shingle” was brown ground beef in a brown gravy. Cream Chipped Beef chipped dried beef in a white cream sauce “creamed on toast”. At least on three US Navy ships I sailed on.

    • Admin



      If you google the term, the first thing that comes up is “creamed chipped beef.” The slang origin is not known, though talking with Navy veterans, this is the most common term. Everbody’s experience, however, may be different.

      Matthew Eng
      Digital Content Developer
      Naval Historical Foundation

  15. Bruce L. Carriker


    Retired since 1998, still like it!

    Split two biscuits and put them on your plate. Put your hash browns on your biscuits. Put your eggs on your hash browns. Put SOS over everything. Enjoy!

  16. Dean


    As a Commisaryman aboard USS HOEL DDG13 from 1966-68 I’m sure I made a rendition of SOS, but I can’t remember which style.
    At my hometown American Legion Post we’d have a quarterly S.O.S. dinner using chipped beef it was a popular event.

  17. Maria Johnson


    Thank you for the recipe! My dad was in the Navy circa 1950 and was reminiscing the other day. On Superbowl Sunday we are going to kick the day off with your recipe and some old Navy buddies of his. Thanks to your recipe and all of the veterans who wax rhapsodic about this dish, I cannot wait to share it with them!

  18. Art


    I use Bacon Drippings instead of butter for the roux: because I have a surplus of this flavorful fat. I also mince some onion which I sauté in the bacon drippings before adding flour. After addition of the milk, I drop in a bay leaf and simmer the sauce 10-12 minutes then taste add the soaked beef strips stirring well to coat all of them with the sauce, then simmer another 5 min. Taste for seasoning and add pepper, hot sauce if you wish and some chopped parsley for color.

  19. Andrew Scharbarth


    No. A-34 Creamed Ground Beef on Toast.

    100 servings of 1 cup each. Preparation and cooking time: about 1 1/4 hours

    35 pounds of Beef Carcass, cut into pieces and ground finely OR 24 pounds of finely ground boneless beef

    Brown beef in its own fat in roasting pans on top of range. Remove excess fat during cooking period.

    1 pound (3/4 quart) dried chopped onion
    5 oz (1/2 cup) salt
    1 oz (1 tablespoon) black pepper
    1 bay leaf

    Add onions and seasoning and mix thoroughly.

    2 gallons evaporated milk
    2 gallons of water for milk

    Add 3 gallons of milk to beef mixture and heat to simmering, stirring frequently.

    2 pounds (1 3/4 quarts) hard wheat flour.

    Mix flour with the remaining gallon of milk and stir into hot mixture. Bring to a boil, stirring steadily, reduce heat and simmer until thickened.

    100 slices toast.

    Serve on toast.

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